Pompe ad alta pressione

I sistemi common rail hanno subito in questi anni una evoluzione impressionante.

La grande diffusione raggiunta dai motori diesel è legata fondamentalmente alle ottime prestazioni che oggi questi propulsori sono in grado di offrire e ai ridotti consumi di combustibile.

La vera rivoluzione in questo campo è iniziata alla fine degli anni Ottanta con l’apparizione dei primi motori a gasolio ad iniezione diretta, che hanno mostrato la strada a tutti i costruttori. I vantaggi che essi offrivano erano molto significativi e i problemi che in precedenza avevano impedito la loro diffusione sono stati rapidamente risolti soprattutto grazie allo sviluppo di sistemi di iniezione completamente nuovi, a controllo elettronico e con pressioni di esercizio molto più elevate di quelle impiegate in precedenza.

Una pressione di iniezione molto elevata è necessaria non solo per ottenere una polverizzazione del combustibile molto spinta e una adeguata penetrazione dei getti nella massa d’aria (indispensabile per ottenere una rapida vaporizzazione e vantaggiosa anche ai fini della velocità e della completezza della miscelazione), ma anche per poter immettere nella camera di scoppio la corretta quantità di combustibile in tempi estremamente ridotti.

La grande maggioranza dei motori diesel oggi in produzione è dotata di sistemi di iniezione Common Rail che devono il loro grande successo al fatto che consentono un controllo particolarmente accurato dell’iniezione e lo spezzettamento della iniezione stessa.

I nuovi sistemi consentono di raggiungere pressioni oramai anche dell’ordine di 2000 bar e un vantaggio notevole costituito dal fatto che la pressione di iniezione risulta in pratica indipendente dal regime di rotazione del motore.

I MIGLIORI COMPONENTI, LE MIGLIORI PRESTAZIONI

Un tipico sistema common rail è costituito da una pompa che genera in maniera continuativa l’alta pressione, da un elemento di accumulo e di distribuzione che di norma ha una forma tubolare che viene detto Rail (nei motori a V se ne impiega uno per ogni bancata di cilindri) e da una serie di iniettori controllati elettronicamente, che vengono collegati al rail da cortissime tubazioni.
Il controllo dell’alta pressione presente è di fondamentale importanza per il corretto funzionamento del propulsore. La quantità di gasolio introdotta in camera di combustione viene infatti ottenuta in due differenti modi: tramite il tempo di iniezione (tempo di apertura dell’iniettore) e tramite la pressione del combustibile in ingresso all’iniettore. Le tecniche utilizzate per gestire la pressione nel rail sono sostanzialmente due: una impiega il regolatore di pressione, l’altra utilizza una valvola di dosaggio. Quella con il regolatore di pressione, che, a seconda dell’impianto può essere installato sul rail o sulla pompa stessa, è stata utilizzata sui primi impianti nei quali la pompa stessa pressurizza la massima portata di gasolio inviandola agli iniettori, mentre la centralina monitorizza la pressione tramite uno specifico sensore e la modula scaricando parte del combustibile verso il serbatoio, attraverso il circuito di ritorno. Questo sistema è semplice, ma è caratterizzato da una efficienza molto bassa, inoltre è necessario uno scambiatore di calore per raffreddare il gasolio inviato al serbatoio, perché è molto caldo (infatti è stato pressurizzato).
Per migliorare l’efficienza della sezione ad alta pressione dei sistemi common rail, è stato introdotta una valvola di dosaggio. Tale attuatore, consente alla centralina di regolare la quantità di gasolio diretta allo stadio di pressurizzazione della pompa meccanica. Se perciò il funzionamento del motore non richiede una considerevole portata di combustibile, oppure la pressione nel rail non deve raggiungere elevati valori, il regolatore di flusso verrà comandato dalla centralina in modo da pressurizzare, tramite la pompa meccanica, solo la quantità di gasolio necessaria. Il funzionamento è dunque estremamente efficiente, perché è bassa l’energia meccanica usata per comprimere il combustibile. Su alcuni tipi di impianti, il regolatore di flusso e quello di pressione vengono utilizzati in modo congiunto, per poter meglio gestire le necessarie variazioni di pressione in modo opportuno, ad esempio nella fase di rilascio e cioè mentre gli iniettori sono chiusi, tramite il regolatore di pressione che interviene scaricando parte del combustibile presente nel rail e il regolatore di flusso che non consente al gasolio di entrare nello stadio di pressurizzazione della pompa meccanica.
Da quanto fino ad ora descritto si può concludere che per poter effettuare diagnosi precise sul malfunzionamento di un motore diesel, provocato dal suo impianto di alimentazione, è necessario verificare il funzionamento della pompa, cioè si deve controllare se essa è in grado di far raggiungere al gasolio la massima pressione stabilita in fase di progettazione e se gli iniettori, che funzionano con la variazione delle pressioni interne, sono efficienti. La centralina interpreterebbe variazioni brusche di pressione come un grave guasto e comanderebbe immediatamente lo spegnimento del motore.

Rossi Diesel Autoservice srl è senza dubbio protagonista in questa evoluzione ed è impegnata costantemente per la formazione tecnica del personale necessaria al perfetto mantenimento degli impianti di alimentazione diesel.

É dotata di attrezzature e strumenti che consentono di verificare la funzionalità della pompa meccanica, quella della linea di alimentazione utilizzata per alimentarla e quella degli iniettori, in modo da poter stabilire, in caso di malfunzionamenti, quali elementi dovranno essere sostituiti o revisionati.

Occorre inoltre sottolineare che queste importantissime valutazioni preliminari, non possono essere fatte con la classica diagnosi elettronica, valida unicamente per la lettura degli errori e dei parametri forniti dalla centralina controllo motore. Lo strumento di diagnosi in questione non indica mai chiaramente la causa che ha provocato un mal funzionamento nel circuito idraulico di un sistema common rail, e non può accertare in modo diretto il corretto funzionamento della pompa meccanica e degli iniettori.

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